Oil and Gas
Hardness Picks - Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
Mohs Hardness Scale is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Coquina - A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Mount Etna - The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Largest Hurricanes Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
Volcanic Explosivity - Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
The Acid Test - Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
What Is Luster? Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
World Record Lightning - this lake has more lightning than any other place in the world.
Blue Flames and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
Ruby and Sapphire are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Teacher Resources - K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Tallest Tsunami - A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Largest Earthquake ever recorded - Magnitude 9.5. Chile, 1960.
Solar System Volcanoes - Earth is not the only location of volcanic activity.
Utica Shale is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
Rock Tumblers - All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Mars Meteorites Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Types of Maps - Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
What is the San Andreas Fault? Map, photos and description of the fault.
Cinnabar - the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
Morganite is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
Rock & Mineral Kits The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
US Diamond Mines - Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
Fool*s Gold is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Pictures of Opal - A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Rocks - Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Ticks are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
California Earthquake Maps - A collection of isoseismal maps for earthquakes in California.
Mined in America - Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
Charoite is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
Mineraloids are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
Hawaii*s Next Island could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
The Science of Fireworks Learn how the colors and shapes are created.
Deepest Point in the Ocean The deepest point in the ocean is in the Mariana Trench.
Rhodochrosite - a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
Geology Tools Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
The Many Uses of Gold - Unique properties make gold one of the most useful metals.
Soapstone is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Methane Hydrate deposits contain more fuel value than all other fossil fuels combined.
Obsidian - the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
Colored Diamonds are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
Corundum is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Free Google Earth software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
Range of Bear Species - Where you might encounter different types of bears.
Copper Kills COVID-19 and many other pathogens to limit the spread of disease.
How Are Hurricanes Named? There is a plan for naming tropical storms.
Minerals - Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
Novarupta - The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
Labradorite is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
Birthstones are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
Wall Maps - Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
Azurite - Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
The Rock Used to Make Beer - Geologists are beer experts and should know about this rock.
Geodes look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
Diamond Misconception - Many people think that diamonds form from coal. Not True!
Shale - The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
Granite - The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
What is Geology? The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
Geology Books - A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
The East Africa Rift System - The extensive fault system that is tearing Africa apart.
Expansive Soil causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Plate Tectonics - Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
Portable UV Lamp - Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
Rock Art - People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Ethiopian Opal - The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
Petrified Wood is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Rare Earths - Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Sliding Rocks Mystery - What causes these rocks to slide across a playa in Death Valley?
Crater of Diamonds - The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Bear Attacks - Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
Lapis Lazuli - a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
Quartzite is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Cave of the Hands is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
Waterproof Paper - Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Ant Hill Garnets - tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Grape Agate is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
Tallest Mountain - Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
What Is The Moho? The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
What is a Geyser? Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Gemstones - Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
World*s Largest Diamonds Records for the largest rough, faceted and carbonado diamond.
Tourmaline - an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
Mineral Rights - Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Lightning Strikes Map by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
What Is Earth Science? The study of Earth and its neighbors in space. Learn more!
Diamonds - Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
Rock Salt is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Gold Pans and Panning Kits - classifiers, snuffer bottles. Learn how to pan for Gold.
Hematite - The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
Fluorescent Minerals and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Know the Rules before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
Turquoise - A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
Field Courses - Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
Volcanoes - Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Gem Silica is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
Gifts That Rock - What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
100+ Gems - Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Tanzanite was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
Cinder Cones are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
Hand Lens A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
Meteorites - Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
Peridotite is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
Sand is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Names Used for Great Britain, British Isles, United Kingdom, and Ireland. What they mean.
Emerald is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
What is a Maar? The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
Horizontal Drilling has opened new resources and significantly improved productivity.
Topo Maps - The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Citrine is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
Ilmenite - The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Fire Opal is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
Coal Through a Microscope - Coal is more than a black rock. It is THE most interesting rock.
Rhyolite An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
Rocks on Mars Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
10 Gemmy Facts About Spinel - Is spinel the world*s most overlooked gem?
How did the Hawaiian Islands Form? The power of a moving plate over a stationary hot spot.
Angel Falls in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
Storm Surge can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Types of Volcanic Eruptions - A description of the most common eruption types.
Homeowners Insurance might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
Zircon is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
Small Float Valve, Saving Valve, White Civil Construction for Wa is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
4 Prong, Vinyl Coated Clamp on Stainless Steel Rod - 4.1" Max Cl - A number of materials from space are used as attractive gems.
Olivine - Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
Chalcopyrite - The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
Talc is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Mount Vesuvius - geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Debris Flows are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
The Uses of Marble are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Herkimer Diamonds Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
The Unsung Mineral Hero - and the commodity upon which almost everything is built.
Largest Volcano - That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
Pyroxene Minerals are a group of chain silicate minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.